Middle-class families appeared to be economically successful and often able to solve problems easily. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph 9(2), pt. The films were also not effective in influencing attitudes related to the army's orientation objectives, for example, deepening resentment toward the enemy, giving greater support to the British, and demanding unconditional surrender. Another development in the late 1960s was the diffusion of innovations developed by James Coleman, who investigated how doctors decided to adopt new antibiotic drugs (Rogers, 1982). Victoria O’Donnell Propaganda and Persuasion Fifth Edition Garth S. Jowett University of Houston Victoria O’Donnell Montana State University SAGE Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC ---. The research that followed was extensive. Another research breakthrough occurred during the same era along with the development of new survey techniques for studying the interrelationship between the media and persuasion in natural settings over time. We believe that the student of propaganda needs to be conversant with both social science and cultural studies. Research on the effects of filmed pornography (Donnerstein & Malamuth, 1984) has suggested a possible link between pornography and violence against women. Lazarsfeld recalled in his memoirs the hope to "develop a convergence of European theory and American empiricism" (Fleming & Bailyn, 1969, p. 324). The Early Window: Effects of Television on Children and Youth. Allport, G.W. New York: Knopf. Fourth, people can appear to accept an idea publicly without private acceptance. Topics that are most likely to be influential are on unfamiliar, lightly felt, peripheral issues that do not matter much or are not tied to audience predispositions. A substantial body of behavioral and social scientists turned their attention to communication studies. "The Demonstration of Power: Violence Profile no. Gerbner, George, L. Gross, N. Signorelli, M. Morgan, and M. Jackson-Beck. "A Dependency Model of mass-media Effects." The benchmark for the initiation of socio-behavioral experiments in the area of attitude change, communication, and the acquisition of factual knowledge from instructional media came from studies conducted by a group of distinguished social and behavioral scientists who had been enlisted into service by the U.S. Army. Pratkanis, A.R., and A.G. Greenwald. 1964. Numerous studies have been done in this area yielding sufficient evidence to conclude that media gatekeepers formulate meaning-selecting, screening, interpreting, emphasizing, and distorting information. 2nd edn. Early research on this concept began when Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw investigated what voters in North Carolina said were the key issues in the 1968 presidential campaign. Qualter, T.H. If there is a high discrepancy between the commitment and the inconsistent act, change will occur. 1925. Berkowitz said it was possible for subjects to behave aggressively in later situations if the fantasy situation on film or television seemed justified. In that role it may be one of the most important agencies of socialization in our society" (p. 384). Research questions were concerned with the variables of communication interaction, especially with regard to attitudes and attitude change. James W. Carey (1988) says the sources of cultural meanings are in "construable signs and symbols ... embedded in things; some relatively durable such as artifacts and practices, some relatively transitory like fashions and follies" (p. 11). Further, Miller indicates that people may behave according to perceived rewards and punishment for carrying out the behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.